Alexander Caruso (Mass Comm)
This case study is about two government-issued photographs of American soldiers that died in Iraq on September 14, 2008 that were manipulated. A chief photographer of the San Antonio Express-News noted that the two headshot photographs were identical except for the faces being edited in. The soldiers had the same last name.
The TARES Test is a way to analyze the ethics of media advertising, and can also be used to determine the ethics of non-advertising photomanipulation. The TARES test is the acronym for an analytical tool developed by Baker and Martinson (2001) to evaluate the ethics of a specific element within media that is trying to persuade an audience. According to Patterson and Wilkins (2014), the acronym TARES can be explained as follows: Truth – are the claims, both verbal and visual, truthful? Authenticity – is the claim sincere? Respect – Is the receiver of the media message/ product treated with respect? Equity – is the receiver of the media message/product on the same level as its creator in order to understand everything? Social responsibility – Is society improved by this media message/product and/or could anyone be harmed by it? Does it increase the public trust of persuasive media messages and reflect corporate responsibilities to the public? (Patterson & Wilkins, 2014, pp. 56-59) The TARES Test is usually used to analyze the ethics of advertising but it can be used to examine the ethics of other visual forms of mass media such as photo manipulation.